- Q?HOW CAN BE DEFINED OR CLASSIFIED THE BIOFERTILIZERS OF INAGROSA?
The biological nutrition of crops could be defined like a different way to feed the plants and vegetables that those standard procedures followed since early last century with the chemical fertilizers, whose extensive and intensive use has damaged the soils, the ecosystems and its price have been skyrocketed currently becoming prohibitive to the farmers.
The biofertilizers developed by INAGROSA, along late 1980s and early 90s, belong to a new kind of biological-organic fertilizers, characterized for a) its active material: free L-amino acids and oligopeptides biologically actives; b) to be environmental friendly; c) enhancers of the soil fertility (agriculture sustainable); d) for its low dosage in litres or kgs per hectare; e) to be cost –effective due to its low cost per hectare and the high yield increasing rates achieved with its application.
All of above characteristics are quite opposite to those of chemical fertilizers.
The ratio Cost/Benefit of the biofertilizers is much more profitable for the farmers than the chemical fertilization, more over those (BIO) preserve the environment against the harmful produced by a steady year by year application to the soils of chemical fertilizers.
- Q?HOW ARE THEY MANUFACTURED AND WHAT IS ITS COMPOSITION?
The process and know-how used to manufacture these biofertilizers was developed by the R&D Dept. of INAGROSA (LBE Corp) along the decade of 1980s. The aim of the process was to obtain free L-amino acids and oligopeptides 100% pure and biologically active, following the cell pathway biosynthesis process executed by the biological facilities of all the cells inside of its membranes.
For achieving this target, which took more than ten years, the researchers of INAGROSA had to use the breakthrough edge of biotechnological tools available in that time: chemical solid state and chromatographic techniques between others, as well as to control a complex sequence of synthesis and hydrolysis processes, in order to follow up at laboratory in a scaling up framework under stringent controls and accuracy copy like it is performed inside the cell membrane, is said, one of the highest complex manufacturing process of the nature.
Later in the 90s, the new findings and fast development of computering hardware and software technology allowed to improve the above summarized process and know-how of INAGROSA.
The L-aminoacids and oligopeptides obtained through this process are used in medicine as active material, under the generic code of ETF (Extracellular Transcription Factors), especially in CNS degenerative diseases, in animal and human as complementary nutritional food, in cosmetics, in fermentative processes, in microbiology as bioactivators in the culture media and in many other applications and derivative processes, all of them with the mark of no toxic and environmental friendly.
INAGROSA began its application first of all in agriculture late 1980s, regarding to destinate the total net income obtained for funding its medical and pharmaceutical research.
For its application in agriculture, INAGROSA developed a complementary technology: to bind up ions of N, P, K and microelements (macro and micro plant nutrients) to the chain of the amino acids and oligopeptides, on the base that the amino acids are excellent carriers and those amino acids obtained in the process of INAGROSA, come in easily and in a very fast manner in
the cells, crossing cell membranes and the nucleus membrane, allowing with this technology to supply the nutrients required by the plants through a naturally occurring manner and with more effectiveness than the chemical fertilization standard process.
In the process of INAGROSA are not used, at all, any microorganism and the raw material used are the chemical elements composing the formula of amino aids: C, N, O, H, S… taken from organic compounds that use the cells for its biosynthesis process.
Its composition for agricultural applications is essentially made by L-amino acids and oligopeptides in a tailored profile of the aminogram for the different crops, binding in its chains a variable percentage of N, P, K and microelements, according to the nutritional requirements of the growth phenological stages of the plants: seed germination, sprouting, roots development, growing, flowering, ripening and to overcome specific stress situations.
- Q?WHAT IS THEIR MECHANISM OF ACTION?
The mechanism of action of these plant nutritional products, as well as all the rest of products manufactured with the same active material for pharmaceutical uses, animal-human nutrition application, etc…is based essentially in the “cell to cell communication process” as it was discovered and described by three group of Nobel Prize Winners in the 80s and 90s (Alfred Gilman: discoverer of G-Protein; Martin Rodbell: discoverer of the biological process in cells in a similar manner as in computering technology “receptor-transductor-amplifier”; Gunter Blodel and others).
In the process of INAGROSA copying the cell pathway biosynthesis are obtained several oligopeptides with exactly the same characteristics that those synthesized by the cells, which play a fundamental role as “Transcription Factors”. Those characteristics are: molecular weight less than 1 KD; structural formula in helix-alfa shape, amino acids of negative charge aligned on the exterior side of helix, the number of amino acids is three, and always with the same sequence.
This fact allows to the active material of INAGROSA (code as FACE for pharmaceutical uses, NOMAR 148 and NOMAR 200 for agriculture, ALEC for cosmetic, etc…) to catch up the cell signals coming from the cell machinery of nucleus cell (DNA, RNA), is said, from the genome, and to perform according the signal content: warning the macro (N,P,K, Ca) in nutrition of plants or micronutrient (Fe, Mg, Mn, etc…) required in that moment of plant phenological stage, stress signals when the plant is suffering the growing inhibition effect produced by the wide array of stress factors (drought, phytotoxicity, frost, soil or ground water contamination, etc…). For this purpose, is said, the stress overcoming and to mix it with all pesticides for reducing the dosage and environment damage, INAGROSA developed the biostimulator AMINOL-FORTE, the first one placed into the market in 1986.
The communication between cells process have been completed, in early years of this century by the researchers with new findings of the role associated to G-protein: the GPCRs (G Protein-Coupled Receptors) are trans-membrane proteins that transducer an extracellular signal-ligand binding-into an intracellular signal
activation of G-protein, which in turn, activated various key cellular pathways. GPCRs represent the largest family, especially in the human genome and play a vital role in may biochemical and physiological processes from cell to cell communication. Today is the most important target in drug discovery (cardiovascular, cancer, metabolic disorders, etc…)
The influence and effects of GPCRs process have been also tested in laboratory and studied with the active material FACE and NOMAR, regarding to prepare new applications in medicine and agriculture.
- Q?WHY ARE THEY “ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY” AND FREE OF TOXICITY OR SIDE EFFECTS?
Because of their components:
a) The active material, as explained in A.2 and A.3 are obtained in
a naturally occurring manner
b) The rest of the components N.P.K or microelement when they
are incorporated in the formulation.
The raw material from which they are taken, or the chemical reactive compounds of laboratory category, are submitted to different chemical processes of cleaning and ionization for taking away the ions N.P.K with microelements which will be located in binding up to amino acids chains, forming a naturally occurring manner organic polymer which match the natural requirements of cells and vegetal tissues, no any damaging of soils and grounds water is produced neither they are harmful for micro flora and micro fauna.
In the toxicology tests carried out in 1990 to 1993 in United Kingdom, France and Spain, the active material was classified as “Active material without toxicity and very low level of side effects”. The DL50 was stated as not toxicity material, because no deaths of animals: rats, beagle dogs, rabbits, etc. were produced, being estimated for the maximum dose what was physically possible to deliver to the animals body through i.m. injections, in DL50>4000 mg /kg/day.
Concerning the agriculture application, in the experimental trials carried out in 1987 to 1989 by the Prof Huffaker and his team of the University of California, Davis, USA, monitoring especial phytotoxicity and environmental harmful tests, increased the standard dosage of AMINOL-FORTE 1 litres/ha, up to 1000 times higher, is said, the equivalent to 1000 litres/ha without any symptoms of damage in the wheat, rye-grass and other vegetables neither in the soil microorganisms nor in the micro flora of ground water.
On the contrary, these products of INAGROSA are applied very frequently for restoring damages on the environment and ecosystems produced by pesticides, herbicides or any kind of toxicants including waste of explosives like TNT. See as Reference the book “Biochemical Mechanisms of Detoxification in Higher Plants” G.Kvesitadze, G. Khatisasvhili, T. Sadunishvili, J.J. Ramsden, Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg 2006, pages 183/186.
- Q?WHY INAGROSA IS TRADING THE LIQUID BIOFERTILIZERS (FOLIAR NUTRIENTS) IN FOUR DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS/TRADE MARKS (AMINOL-FORTE, FOSNUTREN, KADOSTIM AND HUMIFORTE), COVERING TOGETHER THE WHOLE GROWING PLANT STAGES AND NOT IN ONE UNIQUE FORMULATION OR COMPOSITION/TRADE MARK?
Because, as is explained in A.2 and A.3, the active material works according its mechanism of action based on “communication between cells process”, is said, works fulfilling in each phenological stage of the plants, the exact answer to the nutritional requirements of the plants in that stage, or enhancing the RNA and RNA-polymerase synthesis for overcoming any stress effect (AMINOL-FORTE).
The remaining three formulations were designed late 1980 by the plant physiology specialists of INAGROSA on basis of the above, as follows:
FOSNUTREN: L-amino acid specific profile + oligopeptides + phosphorous in higher content than the rest, regarding to be applied (sprayed) for root system enhancing or for overcoming the transplanting stress and pre-flowering and flowering stage.
KADOSTIM: L-amino acid specific profile + oligopeptides + potassium in higher content than the rest, regarding to be applied for filling the fruits in the ripening stage, increasing the sugar, oil, starch, proteins content and fruit storing/transportation resistance or enlarging shield life.
HUMIFORTE: High tech nutrient complex with biologically active synthesized free amino acids and low molecular weight oligopeptides immediately absorbed through leaves or the root system. It also provides N,P,K humic and fluvonic acids along with biologically active synthesized free aminoacids to the plant quickly with
spectacular results. Its specific and complete array of nutritional effects was delivered for cash crops, green house etc.
The GPCRs recent findings has allowed to understand why and how the active material of these biofertilizers cross so fast the cell membranes, reaching the genome in the cell nucleus in less than three hours since the biofertilizers/biostimulant is sprayed on the leaves of one crop when a strong phytotoxicity has been provoked in a laboratory test, using a wrong mix of herbicides able to kill the plant in less than 24 hours. In this experimental test, one reduced dose of AMINOL-FORTE (0,25% or the equivalent of 0,25 litres/ha) was enough to catch up the strong signal produced by the genome of the crop damaged, saving it of a total tissue necrosis in few hours.
In early 90s, was found that the active material of AMINOL-FORTE sprayed over the leaves of crops, which were not suffering any hard stress, took six/seven hours until its effects were checked in the physiological and metabolical processes of the crop, following a transaminase model.
- Q?WHY ARE THEY USED IN SO LOW DOSAGES?
The standard dosages are between 0,5 and 1,25 litres/ha, when are sprayed over the leaves of the plants in a crop which does not suffer important effects of stress.
In the case of AMINOL-FORTE, when is used for overcoming strong stress or to save a plant to be killed by a lethal toxicity, the dosage is reduced to 0,25 litres/ha, but with daily application during three or four days.
In the case of HUMIFORTE, when is applied to the soil through drip irrigation or any other irrigation system, the dosage is 2,5 to 3,0 L/Ha.
These low doses are due to the already explained in A.2. and A.3.
The mechanism of action of the active material performs in a cost-effective manner through its fast and complete penetration inside the cell, reaching the neuralgic point of the cellular machinery and on the basis of Rodbell transduction process, a very small quantity of this active material can amplify thousand times its effect on the key cellular pathway plant of metabolic process.
- Q?IT CAN BE DAMAGED THE CROPS WITH HIGH DOSAGE OF THESE BIOFERTILIZERS?
According the toxicological tests and field trials carried out, no evidence or symptoms of damage have been found.
As is referred in A.3, the especial toxicity experimental tests carried out in 1987 to 1989 by the Prof. Huffaker and his team of the Plant Growth Laboratory of the University of California, Davis, spraying AMINOL-FORTE at doses 1.000 times higher than standard on wheat and barley, and observing the effect with an electronic microscope in a chamber of nitrogen at -150ºC the effects of that dosage at sub molecular level, not any damage of the tissue of leaves, stem or grains were observed.
When the spraying, in so high dosage (1.000 times higher), of AMINOL-FORTE was done at early stage of the plant (four leaves), a huge concentration of ATP was observed at the bottom of the stem. The growth of the plant was blocked but no necrosis was observed, remaining green in the same situation for more than six months without feeding with fertilizers nor irrigated.
- Q?WHAT IS THE “EXPIRY DATE” OR SHELF LIFE?
When the bottle remains sealed and stored at environ temperature between 0ºC and 40ºC, kept out of direct sunlight, the shelf life have been checked that reachs a maximum of 6-7 years.
If the bottle is stored permanently at higher temperature up 30ºC and supporting the direct sunlight on the bottle, the shelf life will be reduced at 1 to 2 years, due to the fast degradation of amino acids.
If the bottle is opened and the liquid is not immediately applied, the active material will lose its activity in few days, and there is a high probability that a bacteriological contamination of the liquid will be produced.
- Q?IS DANGEROUS ITS HANDLING FOR HUMANS?
No, at all.
Accidental release measures: No requirements for ventilating area of leak or spill. No wear personal protective equipment contains and recovers liquid when possible. Not to neutralize the liquid is required. The product is environment friendly.
Handling and Storage: No especial measures are required for handling and storage. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from sources of heat and direct sunlight is recommended to avoid any degradating effect on the substance. Freezing up to -20ºC does not affect on the substance activity.
See the Safety Sheets of the products, in the web site of INAGROSA: www.inagrosa.es
- Q?HOW CAN THEY COMPARE WITH CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS IN TERMS OF COST AND EFFECTIVENESS?
After 20 years of application of these biofertilizers by the farmers in more than 35 countries and the results obtained in trials which aim was to find out a comparison in terms of plant nutrition effectiveness between the biofertilizers of INAGROSA and the standard formulations of chemical fertilizers, we have summarized the different figures obtained, according the wide different conditions of soils, climate, rainfall, etc…in the following average figures.
The comparison is made only in terms of cost in USD/hectare and in nutrition effectiveness (Weight of yield) on crops, in which were carried out the treatments:
T1: only chemical fertilizers (urea, DAP, Potassium Nitrate, etc…), one compound per treatment.
T2: only INAGROSA biofertilizers, only one per treatment.
T3: control, without any fertilization.
A) In terms of Nutritional Effectiveness.
1 L/ha of FOSNUTREN <> 210 Kg DAP /ha
1 L/ha of KADOSTIM <> 225 Kg of Potassium Nit./ha
1 L/ha of HUMIFORTE <> 102 Kg of Urea /ha
1 L/ha of HUMIFORTE <> 140 Kg of 12-12-24 /ha
a) Chemical fertilizers, according the technical literature, only 30-35% of the quantity spread on the soil reach: the root system, from this percentage only 50% reach the cells.
b) Biofertilizers, around 90% of the liquid sprayed on the crops reachs the leaves (stomata) or cuticle from this percentage, 100% reachs the cells.
B) In terms of cost (at current prices July 2009):
Cost$ Cost$ Ratio
FOSNUTREN (Average Retail Price: 25 USD/L<>210 Kgs DAP 175,00USD 7/1
KADOSTIM(“): 25 USD/L <>225 Kgs N03K 162,5 USD 6,5/1
HUMIFORTE (“):28 USD/L <>102 Kg Urea 72,8USD 2,6/1
HUMIFORTE: 28USD/L<>140Kg 12-12-24 119,0USD 4,25/1
- Q?IT COULD BE SWITCHED COMPLETELY OR ONLY TO REDUCE DOSAGE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS APPLIED TOGETHER WITH INAGROSA BIOFERTILIZERS?
Even the advantages of the biofertilizers over the chemical fertilizers, it does not mean that these latter have to be substituted at 100%, because it depends of many factors in each case: soil status, percentage of NPK uptaken by the crop, etc…
The most habitual procedure of the farmers that use frequently or continually every season the biofertilizers, is to reduce the chemical fertilizers up to 60% or to substitute them when its price boosted, as it has occurred along 2008 and 2009.
- Q?ARE THE BIOFERTILIZERS COMPATIBLE WITH OTHER AGROCHEMICALS OR PESTICIDES?
Yes, they are totally compatible and can be mixed with all agrochemicals, pesticides and herbicides, reducing the dosage of these latter from 10-12% of insecticides up to 50% of herbicides.
The compounds of Copper like Copper used as fungicides is a mandatory to reduce dosage up to 60%, 70%, applying 30% to 40% of standard dose due to the major penetration of copper performed by the amino acids and its high effectiveness killing the fungi.
- Q?FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE PRODUCTS IS REQUIRED TO PURSHASE ANY ESPECIAL DEVICE?
No, they can be applied (sprayed) using standard devices or equipment habitually used by the farmers, as follows:
a) Knap-sacks handled manually, cap 10L, 15L.
b) Knap-sacks with sprayers powered by batteries.
c) Sprayer equipment fitted with arms of 6, 8, 10 and 12 m length powered by tracker.
d) Especial sprayer unit automotive with advanced electronic control to meet the angle position of the arms, adjusting the shape of the mist to the slope of canopy, etc. The sprayers are turbine type at 20000 to 30 000 r.p.m and the mist with the tiny drops achieves the max efficiency in spraying the biofertilizers of INAGROSA.
e) By plane with standard sprayers 500 to 1000 L of the mixture biofertilizer and water.
f) By helicopter using ULV (Utta Low Volume) spraying equipment with 100 to 250 L of water, biofertilizer (1L/Ha).
- Q?ARE THERE IN THE MARKET ANOTHER BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS LIKE THESE BIOFERTILIZERS OF INAGROSA?
In the market there is not any nutritional product, using the same active material, because the process of INAGROSA for obtaining L-amino acids (AA) and oligopeptides of short molecular weight and biologically active handling them stabilized and in commercial packaging, is unique.
In Europe, USA and Australia are selling biofertilizers with different trade marks by one manufacturer to whom INAGROSA has granted a licence supplying to him the active material formulating them in one factory located in Belgium.
There are in the market many plant organic nutrients as protein hydrolyzed or similar. Some of them are pretty good effective, but only in the terms of providing organic nitrogen to the plants, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis. Other protein hydrolyzed products manufactured in China, India, Spain and other countries using a very low cost process of acid hydrolysis with sulphuric acid hydrolyzing slaughter-house or dairy industry waste obtaining a black, bad odour liquid products traded as “nutrient containing amino acids” which are of poor quality and very low cost, containing high percentage of heavy metals, EU has announced that they will be banned right 2010.
The production of amino acids through fermentative process, using specific strains of Brevibacterium and Corinumbacterium for releasing amino acids in the culture media has an old tradition with high level of technology and know-how in Japan. Lately using microorganisms genetically manipulated (OGM) for increasing the production of amino acids. The problem of this process is to face the difficulty to take away from the culture media the amino acids completely free of impurities, which limit their use for animal nutrition. In agriculture are not used or used in few cases.